Target cash balance

Optimal amount of cash for a firm to hold, considering the trade-off between the opportunity costs of holding too much cash and the trading costs of holding too little cash.

Similar financial terms

Targeted repurchase
The firm buys back its own stock from a potential bidder, usually at a substantial premium, to forestall a takeover attempt.

Target zone arrangement
A monetary system under which countries pledge to maintain their exchange rates within a specific margin around agreed-upon, fixed central exchange rates.

Target payout ratio
A firm's long-run dividend-to-earnings ratio. The firm's policy is to attempt to pay out a certain percentage of earnings, but it pays a stated dollar dividend and adjusts it to the target as base-line increases in earnings occur.

Target firm
A firm that is the object of a takeover by another firm.

Target surplus (or Tied Surplus)
The capital that must remain in a life company in order to support the business already on the books. Target surplus is an amount held over and above the reserves and is needed due to the uncertain nature of the level and timing of future insurance claims. This capital may not be used for dividend payouts to shareholders.

Petty Cash
Minor amount of money held by a person or business to pay for small miscellaneous and infrequent items of expenditure.

Cash flow
Increased and decreases in working capital affected by fluctuating income and/or expenses.

Cash flow statement
Alternative name for the statement of cash flow.

Wanted for cash
A statement displayed on market tickers signaling that a bidder will pay cash for same day settlement of a block of a specified security.

Symmetric cash matching
An extension of cash flow matching that allows for the short-term borrowing of funds to satisfy a liability prior to the liability due date, resulting in a reduction in the cost of funding liabilities.

Statement-of-cash-flows method
A method of cash budgeting that is organized along the lines of the cash flow statement.

Statement of cash flows
A financial statement showing a firm's cash receipts and cash payments during a specified period.

Scheduled cash flows
The mortgage principal and interest payments due to be paid under the terms of the mortgage not including possible prepayments.

Real cash flow
A cash flow is expressed in real terms if the current, or date 0, purchasing power of the cash flow is given.

Operating cash flow
Earnings before depreciation minus taxes. It measures the cash generated from operations, not counting capital spending or working capital requirements.

Noncash charge
A cost, such as depreciation, depletion, and amortization, that does not involve any cash outflow.

Nominal cash flow
A cash flow expressed in nominal terms if the actual dollars to be received or paid out are given.

Net cash balance
Beginning cash balance plus cash receipts minus cash disbursements.

Ledger cash
A firm's cash balance as reported in its financial statements. Also called book cash.

Book cash
A firm's cash balance as reported in its financial statements. Also called ledger cash.

Cash
The value of assets that can be converted into cash immediately, as reported by a company. Usually includes bank accounts and marketable securities, such as government bonds and Banker's Acceptances. Cash equivalents on balance sheets include securities (e.g., notes) that mature within 90 days.

Cash budget
A forecasted summary of a firm's expected cash inflows and cash outflows as well as its expected cash and loan balances.

Cash and carry
Purchase of a security and simultaneous sale of a future, with the balance being financed with a loan or repo.

Cash and equivalents
The value of assets that can be converted into cash immediately, as reported by a company. Usually includes bank accounts and marketable securities, such as government bonds and Banker's Acceptances. Cash equivalents on balance sheets include securities (e.g., notes) that mature within 90 days.

Cash commodity
The actual physical commodity, as distinguished from a futures contract.

Cash conversion cycle
The length of time between a firm's purchase of inventory and the receipt of cash from accounts receivable.

Cash cow
A company that pays out all earnings per share to stockholders as dividends. Or, a company or division of a company that generates a steady and significant amount of free cash flow.

Cash cycle
In general, the time between cash disbursement and cash collection. In net working capital management, it can be thought of as the operating cycle less the accounts payable payment period.

Cash deficiency agreement
An agreement to invest cash in a project to the extent required to cover any cash deficiency the project may experience.

Cash delivery
The provision of some futures contracts that requires not delivery of underlying assets but settlement according to the cash value of the asset.

Cash discount
An incentive offered to purchasers of a firm's product for payment within a specified time period, such as ten days.

Cash dividend
A dividend paid in cash to a company's shareholders. The amount is normally based on profitability and is taxable as income. A cash distribution may include capital gains and return of capital in addition to the dividend.

Cash equivalent
A short-term security that is sufficiently liquid that it may be considered the financial equivalent of cash.

Cash flow after interest and taxes
Net income plus depreciation.

Cash flow coverage ratio
The number of times that financial obligations (for interest, principal payments, preferred stock dividends, and rental payments) are covered by earnings before interest, taxes, rental payments, and depreciation.

Cash flow from operations
A firm's net cash inflow resulting directly from its regular operations (disregarding extraordinary items such as the sale of fixed assets or transaction costs associated with issuing securities), calculated as the sum of net income plus non-cash expenses that were deducted in calculating net income.

Cash flow matching
Also called dedicating a portfolio, this is an alternative to multiperiod immunization in which the manager matches the maturity of each element in the liability stream, working backward from the last liability to assure all required cash flows.

Cash flow per common share
Cash flow from operations minus preferred stock dividends, divided by the number of common shares outstanding.

Cash flow time-line
Line depicting the operating activities and cash flows for a firm over a particular period.

Cash-flow break-even point
The point below which the firm will need either to obtain additional financing or to liquidate some of its assets to meet its fixed costs.

Cash management bill
Very short maturity bills that the Treasury occasionally sells because its cash balances are down and it needs money for a few days.

Cash markets
Also called spot markets, these are markets that involve the immediate delivery of a security or instrument.

Cash offer
A public equity issue that is sold to all interested investors.

Cash ratio
The proportion of a firm's assets held as cash.

Cash settlement contracts
Futures contracts, such as stock index futures, that settle for cash, not involving the delivery of the underlying.

Cash transaction
A transaction where exchange is immediate, as contrasted to a forward contract, which calls for future delivery of an asset at an agreed-upon price.

Cash-equivalent items
Temporary investments of currently excess cash in short-term, high-quality investment media such as treasury bills and Banker's Acceptances.

Cash-surrender value
An amount the insurance company will pay if the policyholder ends a whole life insurance policy.

Cashout
Refers to a situation where a firm runs out of cash and cannot readily sell marketable securities.

Vault cash
Currency that is physically held by banks and stored in vaults overnight.

Zero-balance account
A zero-balance account (ZBA) is a checking account in which zero balance is maintained by transfers of funds from a master account in an amount only large enough to cover the checks presented.

Remaining principal balance
The amount of principal dollars remaining to be paid under the mortgage as of a given point in time.

Receivables balance fractions
The percentage of a month's sales that remain uncollected (and part of accounts receivable) at the end of succeeding months.

Off-balance-sheet financing
Financing that is not shown as a liability in a company's balance sheet.

Balance of trade
Net flow of goods (exports minus imports) between countries.

Balance of payments
A statistical compilation formulated by a sovereign nation of all economic transactions between residents of that nation and residents of all other nations during a stipulated period of time, usually a calendar year.

Balance sheet
Also called the statement of financial condition, it is a summary of the assets, liabilities, and shareholders' equity.

Balance sheet identity
Total Assets = Total Liabilities + Total Shareholders' Equity

Balanced fund
An investment company that invests in stocks and bonds. The same as a balanced mutual fund.

Balanced mutual fund
This is a fund that buys common stock, preferred stock and bonds. The same as a balanced fund.

Basic balance
In a balance of payments, the basic balance is the net balance of the combination of the current account and the capital account.

Compensating balance
An excess balance that is left in a bank to provide indirect compensation for loans extended or services provided.

Original principal balance
The total amount of principal owed on a mortgage before any payments are made.

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Before-tax profit margin

The ratio of net income before taxes to net sales.


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