Junior Stock Exchange
A stock exchange which lists mainly small, emerging companies with low market capitalizations (e.g. under $100million or even under $10 million).
Similar financial termsJunior Leaguers (Junior League)
Affluent non-working women under 40 years old.
Two (or more) classes of common stock with equal rights to cash flows but with unequal voting rights
A stock index tracks changes in the value of a hypothetical portfolio of stocks. The major stock indices in the world are the NASDAQ Composite, S&P 500 and Dow Jones Index.
Nikkei 225 Stock Average
The Nikkei 225 Stock Average (NIKKEI 225) is based on a portfolio of 225 of the largest stocks trading on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Stocks are weighted according to their prices.
Stocks of corporations and companies operating in the high-technology market segments.
Oslo Stock Exchange
In the early 1800s, Norway was a country of farmers and fishermen. Christiania, as the capital city was then called, had just 10,000 citizens. The Norwegian economy was weak, and money was scarce. This had a crushing effect on business and industry, and it was decided that the country needed a commercial exchange to encourage greater commercial activity.
The merchant Nicolay Andresen is generally recognised as the "father" of the Oslo stock exchange. He made the first proposal for a com ...
The value of an outstanding share of stock at the time it was issued
Common stock ratio
A ratio showing the portion of total capitalization represented by common stock and retained earnings. To calculate, add the dollar value of common stock plus retained earnings and divide by total capitalization; the result is expressed as a percentage
Convertible preferred stock
Stock that can be converted to common stock if the investor wishes, at a set price per share or by a specified deadline.
Acquisition of stock
:A merger or consolidation in which an acquirer purchases the acquiree's stock.
Adjustable rate preferred stock (ARPS)
Publicly traded issues that may be collateralized by mortgages and MBSs.
American Stock Exchange (AMEX)
The second-largest stock exchange in the United States. It trades mostly in small-to medium-sized companies.
Common stock that has been repurchased by the company and held in the company's treasury.
Running out of inventory.
The residual claims that stockholders have against a firm's assets, calculated by subtracting total liabilities from total assets.
Set of books kept by firm management for its annual report that follows Financial Accounting Standards Board rules. The tax books follow IRS tax rules.
Holder of equity shares in a firm.
This is a lettered symbol assigned to securities and mutual funds that trade on U.S.financial exchanges.
Occurs when a firm issues new shares of stock but in turn lowers the current market price of its stock to a level that is proportionate to pre-split prices. For example, if Cisco trades at $100 before a 2-for-1 split, after the split it will trade at $50 and holders of the stock will have twice as many shares than they had before the split.
Stock replacement strategy
A strategy for enhancing a portfolio's return, employed when the futures contract is expensive based on its theoretical price, involving a swap between the futures, treasury bills portfolio and a stock portfolio.
An option in which the underlying is the common stock of a corporation.
Also called the equity market, the market for trading equities.
Stock index option
An option in which the underlying is a common stock index.
Balance sheet item that includes the book value of ownership in the corporation. It includes capital stock, paid in surplus, and retained earnings.
An active portfolio management technique that focuses on advantageous selection of particular stocks rather than on broad asset-allocation choices.
A firm's repurchase of outstanding shares of its common stock.
In the US, a stock exchange is a formal organization, approved and regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The SEC are made up of members that use the facilities to exchange certain common stocks. The two major US stock exchanges are the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and the American Stock Exchange (ASE or AMEX). Five regional stock exchanges include the Midwest, Pacific, Philadelphia, Boston, and Cincinnati. The Arizona stock exchange is an after hours electronic marketpla ...
Payment of a corporate dividend in the form of stock rather than cash. The stock dividend may be additional shares in the company, or it may be shares in a subsidiary being spun off to shareholders. Stock dividends are often used to conserve cash needed to operate the business. Unlike a cash dividend, stock dividends are not taxed until sold.
Ownership of a corporation which is represented by shares which represent a piece of the corporation's assets and earnings.
Reverse stock split
A proportionate decrease in the number of shares, but not the value of shares of stock held by shareholders. Shareholders maintain the same percentage of equity as before the split. For example, a 1-for-3 split would result in stockholders owning 1 share for every 3 shares owned before the split. After the reverse split, the firm's stock price is, in this example, worth three times the pre-reverse split price. A firm generally institutes a reverse split to boost its stock's market price and ...
Repurchase of stock
Device to pay cash to firm's shareholders that provides more preferable tax treatment for shareholders than dividends. Treasury stock is the name given to previously issued stock that has been repurchased by the firm. A repurchase is achieved through either a dutch auction, open market, or tender offer.
Preferred stock agreement
A contract for preferred stock.
A security that shows ownership in a corporation and gives the holder a claim, prior to the claim of common stockholders, on earnings and also generally on assets in the event of liquidation. Most preferred stock pays a fixed dividend that is paid prior to the common stock dividend, stated in a dollar amount or as a percentage of par value. This stock does not usually carry voting rights. The stock shares characteristics of both common stock and debt.
A security that ranks junior to preferred stock but senior to common stock in the right to receive payments from the firm; essentially junior preferred stock.
Preferred equity redemption stock (PERC)
Preferred stock that converts automatically into equity at a stated date. A limit is placed on the value of the shares the investor receives.
Philadelphia Stock Exchange (PHLX)
A securities exchange where American and European foreign currency options on spot exchange rates are traded.
Non-cumulative preferred stock
Preferred stock whose holders must forgo dividend payments when the company misses a dividend payment.
New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)
Also known as the Big Board or The Exhange. More than 2,000 common and preferred stocks are traded. The exchange is the older in the United States, founded in 1792, and the largest. It is lcoated on Wall Street in New York City
Margin account (Stocks)
A leverageable account in which stocks can be purchased for a combination of cash and a loan. The loan in the margin account is collateralized by the stock and, if the value of the stock drops sufficiently, the owner will be asked to either put in more cash, or sell a portion of the stock. Margin rules are federally regulated, but margin requirements and interest may vary among broker/dealers.
Stocks that are traded on an exchange.
Privately placed common stock, so-called because the SEC requires a letter from the purchaser stating that the stock is not intended for resale.
Vancouver Stock Exchange (VSE)
The Vancouver Stock exchange (VSE) was one of Canada's junior company stock exchanges. On March 15, 1999, the VSE and the ASE (Alberta Stock Exchange) agreed to merge and form the CDNX - the Canadian Venture Exchange - which will also take on some junior Toronto and Montreal Exchange companies. The VSE got a bad reputation in the 80's due to many unscrupulous scam artists manipulating VSE listed companies. New regulatory controls and surveillance systems which had been implemented on the VSE wer ...
Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE)
Incorporated in 1965 as Kuala Lumpur's stock exchange (although share-trading activity dated from the 1930s).
These are securities that represent equity ownership in a company. Common shares let an investor vote on such matters as the election of directors. They also give the holder a share in a company's profits via dividend payments or the capital appreciation of the security.
Common stock/other equity
Value of outstanding common shares at par, plus accumulated retained earnings. Also called shareholders' equity.
Common stock equivalent
A convertible security that is traded like an equity issue because the optioned common stock is trading high.
Common stock market
The market for trading equities, not including preferred stock.
Common stock ratios
Ratios that are designed to measure the relative claims of stockholders to earnings (cash flow per share), and equity (book value per share) of a firm.
Conflict between bondholders and stockholders
These two groups may have interests in a corporation that conflict. Sources of conflict include dividends, distortion of investment, and underinvestment. Protective covenants work to resolve these conflicts.
Convertible exchangeable preferred stock
Convertible preferred stock that may be exchanged, at the issuer's option, into convertible bonds that have the same conversion features as the convertible preferred stock.
Cumulative preferred stock
Preferred stock whose dividends accrue, should the issuer not make timely dividend payments.
Blank Check Preferred Stock
This is stock over which the board of directors has broad authority to determine voting, dividend, conversion, and other rights. While it can be used to enable a company to meet changing financial needs, its most important use is to implement poison pills or to prevent takeovers by placement of this stock with friendly investors.
Bo Derek stock
High quality stock.
Madrid Stock Exchange (Bolsa de Madrid)
The largest of Spain's four stock exchange.
Joint stock bank
A joint stock bank is one operated by a joint stock or limited company. It is therefore a bank with limited liability. This is in contrast to a private bank which may be owned by a family or individual. All commercial banks in the United Kingdom are joint stock banks.
An (equity) security which has a priority relative to ordinary common shares for dividends and return of par amount in the event of a corporate dissolution. Often, preferred shares are nonvoting equity interests. However, a default in the payment of that issue's preferred dividend or other covenant breach may temporarily give the preferred holders voting powers. Preferred shares can have convertible, cumulative, participating, voting, or other special features.
Montreal Stock Exchange (MSE)
One of the four major stock exchanges in Canada.
Commercial Grain Stocks
Domestic grain in store in public and private elevators at important markets and grain afloat in vessels or barges in lake and seaboard ports.
Certificated or Certified Stocks
Stocks of a commodity that have been inspected and found to be of a quality deliverable against futures contracts, stored at the delivery points designated as regular or acceptable for delivery by a commodity exchange. In grain, called "stocks in deliverable position".
An issue giving the bondholder the right to exchange the issue for a specified number of common stock shares of a corporation different from the issuer of the bond.
Exchange-rate risk on bonds
A non-domestic-currency nominated bond has unknown domestic currency cash flows. The domestic currency cash flows are dependent on the exchange rate at the time the payments are received. For example, suppose that a German investor purchases a bond whose payments are in British pounds (GBP). If pounds depreciate relative to euros (EUR), fewer euros will be received and vice versa. This risk is also referred to currency risk.
Indirect exchange rate
The required amount of foreign currency required to purchase on unit of domestic currency.
Spot exchange rates
Exchange rate on currency for immediate delivery.
Real exchange rates
Exchange rates that have been adjusted for the inflation differential between two countries.
A securities marketplace wherein purchasers and sellers regularly gather to trade securities according to the formal rules adopted by the exchange.
Nominal exchange rate
The actual foreign exchange quotation in contrast to the real exchange rate that has been adjusted for changes in purchasing power.
Membership or a seat on the exchange
A limited number of exchange positions that enable the holder to trade for the holder's own accounts and charge clients for the execution of trades for their accounts.
London International Financial Futures Exchange
London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE) is a London exchange where Eurodollar futures as well as futures-style options are traded.
Canadian Venture Exchange (CDNX)
The Canadian Venture Exchange (CDNX) was formed in late 1999 through the merging of the junior exchanges in Canada, i.e. the Vancouver Stock Exchange, the Alberta Stock Exchange, and various "parts" of the other, more senior exchanges (the Toronto Stock Exchange and the Montreal Stock Exchange) as well as the CDN, Canadian Dealing Network (which really isn't a stock exchange but is more like the OTC-BB in the USA, i.e. a market for "unlisted" stocks). The vision for the CDNX was to be the exchan ...
Bill of exchange
General term for a document demanding payment.
Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE)
A securities exchange created in the early 1970s for the public trading of standardized option contracts.
Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME)
A not-for-profit corporation owned by its members. Its primary functions are to provide a location for trading futures and options, collect and disseminate market information, maintain a clearing mechanism and enforce trading rules.
Commodities Exchange Center (CEC)
The location of five New York futures exchanges: Commodity Exchange, Inc. (COMEX), the New York Mercantile exchange (NYMEX), the New York Cotton Exchange, the Coffee, Sugar and Cocoa exchange (CSC), and the New York futures exchange (NYFE).
Exchange rate overshooting
A phenomenon whereby the exchange rate changes by more in the short run than it does in the long run when the money supply changes.
Unsterilized foreign exchange intervention
A unsterilized foreign exchange intervention is an intervention in which a central bank allows the purchase or sale of domestic currency to affect the monetary base.
Fisher equation of exchange
Fisher's equation of exchange states MV = PT. M is the money supply; V is the velocity of circulation; P is average prices and T is the number of transactions. This equation is in fact an identity as it will always be true. At its simplest level you could imagine an economy that has a money supply of £5. If this £5 is on average used 20 times in a year, it will have generated £100 of spending. In the Fisher equation above M would be equal to £5, V equal to 20 and PT would be £100. This £100 coul ...
Forward exchange rate
The forward exchange rate is a rate for buying foreign exchange at a fixed point in the future. Taking out a forward contract for foreign exchange means that you are agreeing to buy foreign exchange at an agreed rate in the future. The existence of the forward market leads to a considerable amount of speculation.
Fixed exchange rates
A fixed exchange rate system is one where the value of the currency against other currencies remains exactly the same. A fixed exchange rate doesn't stay fixed on its own. Governments have to hold large stocks of foreign exchange, so that they can actively intervene to hold the value of the currency stable. Monetary and fiscal policies will also have to be directed to keeping the rate constant.
Johannesburg Securities Exchange (JSE)
Established in 1886, the Johannesburg Securities Exchange is the only stock exchange in South Africa. Gold and mining stocks form the majority of shares listed. The discovery of the Witwatersrand goldfields in 1886 and the subsequent formation of mining and financial companies, meant investors needed a facility through which to buy and sell shares. Benjamin Woollan provided that facility when he founded the JSE in November 1887. The JSE was admitted as a member of the Federation Internatio ...