Inverted block rate
A cost structure for energy in which each additional block or unit of energy above a given level is charged at a higher rate than preceding blocks. Inverted block rates are most commonly applied to energy delivered to clients who require large portions of their energy during peak demand periods when energy costs are typically higher, or when additional system capacity has to be brought online to meet that client's needs.
Similar financial termsInverted Market
A market where futures prices decrease with maturity.
The holder of a significant stake of a the ownership shares.
Brokerage firms that help to find potential buyers or sellers of large block trades.
A large trading order, defined on the New York Stock Exchange as an order that consists of 10,000 shares of a given stock or a total market value of $200,000 or more.
A group of shareholders banding together to vote their shares in a single block.
A currency that is not freely convertible to other currencies due to exchange controls.
Securities issued by U.S. corporations and non-U.S. corporations in the United States. Includes bonds, MTNs, structured notes and commercial paper. The corporate sector is divided into investment grade and non-investment grade sectors by rating agencies such as Moody’s and S&P.
The interest rate that the issuer of a bond agrees to pay each year to the bondholder. The coupon rate multiplied by the principal of a bond provides the nominal amount of the coupon. For example, a bond with a 5.1% coupon rate and a principal of $1,000 provides an annual interest of $51. The coupon rate is also referred to as the nominal rate.
Interest-rate risk on bonds
The price of a typical bond will change in the opposite direction from a change in interest rates. As interest rates rise, the price of a bond will fall; as interest rates fall, the price of a bond will rise. The actual degree of sensitivity of a bond’s price to changes in market interest rates depends on various characteristics of the issue maturity, coupon and special provisions.
Exchange-rate risk on bonds
A non-domestic-currency nominated bond has unknown domestic currency cash flows. The domestic currency cash flows are dependent on the exchange rate at the time the payments are received. For example, suppose that a German investor purchases a bond whose payments are in British pounds (GBP). If pounds depreciate relative to euros (EUR), fewer euros will be received and vice versa. This risk is also referred to currency risk.
Involve firms engaged in unrelated types of business activity. Among conglomerate mergers, three types have been distinguished: (a) product extensions which broaden the product lines of firms (concentric mergers), (b) geographic market exentions which involves two firms whose operations have been conducted in non-overlapping geographic areas and (c) pure conglomerate mergers which involve unrelated business activities.
Zero-coupon interest rate
The interest rate that would be earned on a bond that provides no coupons.
Term structure of interest rates
The relationship between interest rates and their maturities.
The fixed rate in an interest rate swap that causes the swap to have a value of zero. It can be thought of as the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of a swap.
The average increase per unit of time in a stochastic process.
The interest rate in a repo transaction.
Indirect exchange rate
The required amount of foreign currency required to purchase on unit of domestic currency.
Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
The internal rate of Return (IRR) is the discount rate that equals the present value of a future steam of cash flows to the initial investment. The IRR can be thought of as the annualized rate of return (in percent) of an investment using compound interest rate calculations. The IRR calculation is very useful when a number of future cash flows on which an interest rate needs to be calculated.
Current intrest rate
The rate being earned on a bond based on its current market value; that value varies with the degree of premium or discount value of the bond.
The loan intrest rate charged by the Federal Reserve Bank to its member banks.
Federal funds rate
The rate charged by the Federal Reserve to member banks when excess reserve loans are made from one bank to another.
Accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS)
Schedule of depreciation rates allowed for tax purposes.
Any depreciation method that produces larger deductions for depreciation in the early years of a project's life. Accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS), which is a depreciation schedule allowed for tax purposes, is one such example.
Yield spread strategies
Strategies that involve positioning a portfolio to capitalize on expected changes inyield spreads between sectors of the bond market.
Yield curve strategies
Positioning a portfolio to capitalize on expected changes in the shape of the Treasury yield curve.
Active portfolio strategy
A strategy that uses available information and forecasting techniques to seek a better performance than a portfolio that is simply diversified broadly. Related: passive portfolio strategy.
Adjustable rate preferred stock (ARPS)
Publicly traded issues that may be collateralized by mortgages and MBSs.
After-tax real rate of return
Money after-tax rate of return minus the inflation rate.
All equity rate
The discount rate that reflects only the business risks of a project and abstracts from the effects of financing.
Amortizing interest rate swap
Swap in which the principal or national amount rises (falls) as interest rates rise (decline).
Annual percentage rate (APR)
The periodic rate times the number of periods in a year. For example, a 5% quarterly return has an APR of 20%.
Variable rate loan
Loan made at an interest rate that fluctuates based on a base interest rate such as the Prime Rate or LIBOR.
Variable rated demand bond
Variable rated demand bond (VRDB) is a floating rate bond that can be sold back periodically to the issuer.
Variable rate CDs
Short-term certificate of deposits that pay interest periodically on roll dates. On each roll date, the coupon on the CD is adjusted to reflect current market rates.
The ratio of the number of people classified as unemployed to the total labor force.
Theoretical spot rate curve
A curve derived from theoretical considerations as applied to the yields of actually traded Treasury debt securities because there are no zero-coupon Treasury debt issues with a maturity greater than one year. Like the yield curve, this is a graphical depiction of the term structure of interest rates.
Sustainable growth rate
Maximum rate of growth a firm can sustain without increasing financial leverage.
Structured portfolio strategy
A strategy in which a portfolio is designed to achieve the performance of some predetermined liabilities that must be paid out in the future.
Stopping curve refunding rate
A refunding rate that falls on the stopping curve.
Stock replacement strategy
A strategy for enhancing a portfolio's return, employed when the futures contract is expensive based on its theoretical price, involving a swap between the futures, treasury bills portfolio and a stock portfolio.
Stated annual interest rate
The interest rate expressed as a per annum percentage, by which interest payment is determined.
Spreading is a strategy that involves a position in one or more options so that the cost of buying an option is funded entirely or in part by selling another option in the same underlying.
Spot rate curve
The graphical depiction of the relationship between the spot rates and maturity.
The theoretical yield on a zero-coupon Treasury security.
Spot interest rate
Interest rate fixed today on a loan that is made today.
Spot exchange rates
Exchange rate on currency for immediate delivery.
Split-rate tax system
A tax system that taxes retained earnings at a higher rate than earnings that are distributed as dividends.
The rate suggested in Financial Accounting Standard Board (FASB) 87 for discounting the obligations of a pension plan. The rate at which the pension benefits could be effectively settled off the pension plan wished to terminate its pension obligation.
The rate earned on a riskless asset.
Riskless rate of return
The rate earned on a riskless asset.
The percentage of present earnings held back or retained by a corporation, or one minus the dividend payout rate. Also called the retention ratio.
The rate at which an investor assumes interest payments made on a debt security can be reinvested over the life of that security.
A benchmark 'interest rate (such as LIBOR), used to specify conditions of an interest rate swap or an interest rate agreement.
Real interest rate
The rate of interest excluding the effect of inflation; that is, the rate that is earned in terms of constant-purchasing-power dollars. Interest rate expressed in terms of real goods, i.e. nominal interest rate adjusted for inflation.
Real exchange rates
Exchange rates that have been adjusted for the inflation differential between two countries.
In banking, the risk that profits may decline or losses occur because a rise in interest rates forces up the cost of funding fixed-rate loans or other fixed-rate assets.
Rate of return ratios
Ratios that are designed to measure the profitability of the firm in relation to various measures of the funds invested in the firm.
Rate of interest
The rate, as a proportion of the principal, at which interest is computed.
An agreement between the mortgage banker and the loan applicant guaranteeing a specified interest rate for a designated period, usually 60 days.
Rate anticipation swaps
An exchange of bonds in a portfolio for new bonds that will achieve the target portfolio duration, based on the investor's assumptions about future changes in interest rates.
A strategy of introducing into the decision-making process a random element that is designed to reduce the information content of the decision-maker's observed choices.
Protective put buying strategy
A strategy that involves buying a put option on the underlying security that is held in a portfolio.
The interest rate at which banks lend to their best (prime) customers. Much more often than not, a bank's most creditworthy customers borrow at rates below the prime rate.
Portfolio turnover rate
For an investment company, an annualized rate found by dividing the lesser of purchases and sales by the average of portfolio assets.
Portfolio internal rate of return
The rate of return computed by first determining the cash flows for all the bonds in the portfolio and then finding the interest rate that will make the present value of the cash flows equal to the market value of the portfolio.
PIBOR (Paris Interbank Offer Rate)
The deposit rate on interbank transactions in the Eurocurrency market quoted in Paris.
Pass-through coupon rate
The interest rate paid on a securitized pool of assets, which is less than the rate paid on the underlying loans by an amount equal to the servicing and guaranteeing fees.
The net interest rate passed through to investors after deducting servicing, management, and guarantee fees from the gross mortgage coupon.
Passive portfolio strategy
A strategy that involves minimal expectational input, and instead relies on diversification to match the performance of some market index. A passive strategy assumes that the marketplace will reflect all available information in the price paid for securities, and therefore, does not attempt to find mispriced securities.
Takeover defense strategy in which the prospective acquiree retaliates against the acquirer's tender offer by launching its own tender offer for the other firm.
A strategy of using futures for asset allocation by pension sponsors to avoid disrupting the activities of money managers.
Actual forward rate expressed in dollars per currency unit, or vice versa.
Nominal interest rate
The interest rate unadjusted for inflation.
Nominal exchange rate
The actual foreign exchange quotation in contrast to the real exchange rate that has been adjusted for changes in purchasing power.
Nominal annual rate
An effective rate per period multiplied by the number of periods in a year.
Naked option strategies
An unhedged strategy making exclusive use of one of the following: Long call strategy (buying call options ), short call strategy (selling or writing call options), Long put strategy (buying put options ), and short put strategy (selling or writing put options). By themselves, these positions are called naked strategies because they do not involve an offsetting or risk-reducing position in another option or the underlying security.
Multiple rates of return
More than one rate of return from the same project that make the net present value of the project equal to zero. This situation arises when the IRR method is used for a project in which negative cash flows follow positive cash flows. For each sign change in the cash flows, there is a rate of return.
The interest rate on a mortgage loan.
Money rate of return
Annual money return as a percentage of asset value.
Market capitalization rate
Expected return on a security. The market-consensus estimate of the appropriate discount rate for a firm's cash flows.
Marginal tax rate
The tax rate that would have to be paid on any additional dollars of taxable income earned.
Liability funding strategies
Investment strategies that select assets so that cash flows will equal or exceed the client's obligations.
The payment per period stated in a lease contract.
A bond portfolio strategy in which the portfolio is constructed to have approximately equal amounts invested in every maturity within a given range.
Computer-Intergrated Manufacturing (CIM)
The intergration of computer control and monitoring into a manufacturing process.
The minimum rate of investment that is acceptable to an investor. It is also used in the context of achieving a certain rate before other events can take place. For example, a fund manager has to achieve a certain hurdle rate for his investors before he is paid a bonus.
Refers to the way in which investors and founders can "exit", i.e. leave their company, with a cash return on their investment - e.g. by going public or being acquired or being bought out by other shareholders.
This term is particularly applicable to start up companies or to companies which do not yet have substantial revenues. It refers to the monthly rate of consumption of cash. For example, if total monthly operating costs for rent, salaries, etc are $50K, one would say that the burn rate is $50K/month. When compared to available cash-on-hand it tells us how much time the company has before it will run into serious cash flow difficulties and "flame-out".
A strategy in which the maturities of the securities included in the portfolio are concentrated at two extremes.
Basic business strategies
Key strategies a firm intends to pursue in carrying out its business plan.
Benchmark interest rate
Also called the base interest rate, it is the minimum interest rate investors will demand for investing in a non-Treasury security. It is also tied to the yield to maturity offered on a comparable-maturity Treasury security that was most recently issued ("on-the-run").
Break-even payment rate
The prepayment rate of a MBS coupon that will produce the same CFY as that of a predetermined benchmark MBS coupon. Used to identify for coupons higher than the benchmark coupon the prepayment rate that will produce the same CFY as that of the benchmark coupon; and for coupons lower than the benchmark coupon the lowest prepayment rate that will do so.
Break-even tax rate
The tax rate at which a party to a prospective transaction is indifferent between entering into and not entering into the transaction.
A strategy in which a portfolio is constructed so that the maturities of its securities are highly concentrated at one point on the yield curve.
A passive investment strategy with no active buying and selling of stocks from the time the portfolio is created until the end of the investment horizon.
Call money rate
Also called the broker loan rate , the interest rate that banks charge brokers to finance margin loans to investors. The broker charges the investor the call money rate plus a service charge.
A strategy in which a put and with the same strike price and expiration are either both bought or both sold.
A firm engaged in two or more unrelated businesses.
The acquisition of one firm by anther firm.
Debt obligations issued by corporations.
A legal document creating a corporation.
One of the three areas of the discipline of finance. It deals with the operation of the firm (both the investment decision and the financing decision) from that firm's point of view.
Corporate financial management
The application of financial principals within a corporation to create and maintain value through decision making and proper resource management.
Corporate financial planning
Financial planning conducted by a firm that encompasses preparation of both long- and short-term financial plans.
Corporate processing float
The time that elapses between receipt of payment from a customer and the depositing of the customer's check in the firm's bank account; the time required to process customer payments.
Corporate tax view
The argument that double (corporate and individual) taxation of equity returns makes debt a cheaper financing method.
Corporate taxable equivalent
Rate of return required on a par bond to produce the same after-tax yield to maturity that the premium or discount bond quoted would.
Covered call writing strategy
A strategy that involves writing a call option on securities that the investor owns in his or her portfolio. See covered or hedge option strategies.
Covered or hedge option strategies
Strategies that involve a position in an option as well as a position in the underlying stock, designed so that one position will help offset any unfavorable price movement in the other, including covered call writing and protective put buying.
The interest rate offered on an investment type insurance policy.
The exchange rate between two currencies expressed as the ratio of two foreign exchange rates that are both expressed in terms of a third currency.
The return at which two alternative projects have the same net present value.
Current rate method
Under this currency translation method, all foreign currency balance-sheet and income statement items are translated at the current exchange rate.
Corporate Social Responsibility
CSR stands for corporate social responsibility. Some companies defines corporate social responsibility as open and transparent business practices based on ethical values and respect for its stakeholders.
Exchange rate overshooting
A phenomenon whereby the exchange rate changes by more in the short run than it does in the long run when the money supply changes.
Separate Trading of Registered Interest (STRIPS)
Separate Trading of Registered Interest and Principal Securities (STRIPS) are securities that have their periodic interest payments separated from the final maturity payment and the two cash flows are sold to different investors.
Forward exchange rate
The forward exchange rate is a rate for buying foreign exchange at a fixed point in the future. Taking out a forward contract for foreign exchange means that you are agreeing to buy foreign exchange at an agreed rate in the future. The existence of the forward market leads to a considerable amount of speculation.
Fixed exchange rates
A fixed exchange rate system is one where the value of the currency against other currencies remains exactly the same. A fixed exchange rate doesn't stay fixed on its own. Governments have to hold large stocks of foreign exchange, so that they can actively intervene to hold the value of the currency stable. Monetary and fiscal policies will also have to be directed to keeping the rate constant.
Nominal rate of interest
The annual return form lending money expressed as a percentage, without having taken account of the rate of inflation.