Intellectual Property

This terms refers to all assets of a company that have an intellectual nature to them. They are often referred to as "soft" assets such as trademarks, logos, patents, software, trade secrets, brands, industrial designs, music, colors, designs, etc. They usually have intangible value unlike hard assets such as land, buildings, and equipment.

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Separation property
The property that portfolio choice can be separated into two independent tasks: (a) determination of the optimal risky portfolio, which is a purely technical problem, and (b) the personal choice of the best mix of the risky portfolio and the risk-free asset.

Property rights
Rights of individuals and companies to own and utilize property as they see fit and to receive the stream of income that their property generates.

Foreign Investor in Real Property Tax Act of 1980
Under FIRPTA (Foreign Investor in Real Property Tax Act of 1980), and the Economic Recovery Act of 1981, unless an exemption is granted by the IRS, upon the sale of real property owned by offshore (foreign) persons, the agency, attorney or escrow officer handling the transaction is required to withhold capital gains taxes at the closing of the sale transaction. Unless withheld and submitted to the IRS, the party handling the sale transaction is personally liable for the taxes.

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Capital market efficiency

Reflects the relative amount of wealth wasted in making transactions. An efficient capital market allows the transfer of assets with little wealth loss.

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