Similar financial termsEfficient market
A theory about the stock market stating that the current prices of stocks reflect all that is known about the company at that moment, and that new information is reflected immediately in changes to that stock's market price.
Operationally efficient market
Also called an internally efficient market, one in which investors can obtain transactions services that reflect the true costs associated with furnishing those services.
Markowitz efficient set of portfolios
The collection of all efficient portfolios, graphically referred to as the Markowitz efficient frontier.
Markowitz efficient portfolio
Also called a mean-variance efficient portfolio, a portfolio that has the highest expected return at a given level of risk.
Markowitz efficient frontier
The graphical depiction of the Markowitz efficient set of portfolios representing the boundary of the set of feasible portfolios that have the maximum return for a given level of risk. Any portfolios above the frontier cannot be achieved. Any below the frontier are dominated by Markowitz efficient portfolios.
Coefficient of determination
A measure of the goodness of fit of the relationship between the dependent and independent variables in a regression analysis; for instance, the percentage of variation in the return of an asset explained by the market portfolio return.
A standardized statistical measure of the dependence of two random variables, defined as the covariance divided by the standard deviations of two variables.
The ratio between the area between a Lorenz curve and the 45o line and the area below the 45o line. The Gini coefficient is a precise way of measuring the position of the Lorenz Curve. To work out the Gini coefficient we measure the ratio of the area between the Lorenz Curve and the 45 degree line to the whole area below the 45 degree line. If the Lorenz Curve was the 45 degree line - then the value of the Gini Coefficient would be zero, but as the level of inequality grows so does the Gini Coef ...
A market in which new information is immediately available to all investors and potential investors. A market in which all information is instantaneously assimilated and therefore has no distortions.
A vega-neutral portfolio has an asset combination which implies a vega of zero.
A zero-beta portfolio is constructed to have zero systematic risk, similar to the risk-free asset, that is, having a beta of zero. (i.e. in most cases, we assume the beta of debt to be zero).
A zero-investment portfolio consists of zero net value because of a balanced establishment between long and short position, usually in the context of an arbitrage strategy.
Active portfolio strategy
A strategy that uses available information and forecasting techniques to seek a better performance than a portfolio that is simply diversified broadly. Related: passive portfolio strategy.
Well diversified portfolio
A portfolio spread out over many securities in such a way that the weight in any security is small. The risk of a well-diversified portfolio closely approximates the systemic risk of the overall market, the unsystematic risk of each security having been diversified out of the portfolio.
Weighted average portfolio yield
The weighted average of the yield of all the bonds in a portfolio.
An indexing strategy that is linked to active management through the emphasis of a particular industry sector, selected performance factors such as earnings momentum, dividend yield, P/E ratio, or selected economic factors such as interest rates and inflation.
Structured portfolio strategy
A strategy in which a portfolio is designed to achieve the performance of some predetermined liabilities that must be paid out in the future.
A portfolio constructed to match an index or benchmark.
Weighted sum of the covariance and variances of the assets in a portfolio.
Portfolio turnover rate
For an investment company, an annualized rate found by dividing the lesser of purchases and sales by the average of portfolio assets.
Portfolio separation theorem
An investor's choice of a risky investment portfolio is separate from his attitude towards risk.
Portfolio opportunity set
The expected return/standard deviation pairs of all portfolios that can be constructed from a given set of assets.
Portfolio internal rate of return
The rate of return computed by first determining the cash flows for all the bonds in the portfolio and then finding the interest rate that will make the present value of the cash flows equal to the market value of the portfolio.
A strategy using a leveraged portfolio in the underlying stock to create a synthetic put option. The strategy's goal is to ensure that the value of the portfolio does not fall below a certain level.
A collection of investments, real and/or financial.
A market index portfolio.
Passive portfolio strategy
A strategy that involves minimal expectational input, and instead relies on diversification to match the performance of some market index. A passive strategy assumes that the marketplace will reflect all available information in the price paid for securities, and therefore, does not attempt to find mispriced securities.
An efficient portfolio most preferred by an investor because its risk/reward characteristics approximate the investor's utility function. A portfolio that maximizes an investor's preferences with respect to return and risk.
A customized benchmark that includes all the securities from which a manager normally chooses, weighted as the manager would weight them in a portfolio.
Modern portfolio theory
Principles underlying the analysis and evaluation of rational portfolio choices based on risk-return trade-offs and efficient diversification.
The portfolio of risky assets with lowest variance.
A portfolio consisting of all assets available to investors, with each asset held -in proportion to its market value relative to the total market value of all assets.
A portfolio that includes risky assets purchased with funds borrowed.
The entire portfolio, including risky and risk-free assets.